Nemzetközi szemle: Május
C-ITS (együttműködő intelligens közlekedési rendszerek) alapfunkciók üzemeltetési koncepciója
Concept of Operations for C-ITS Core Functions
a letöltéshez ingyenes regisztráció szükséges
Freek Faber, David Green, Austroads Australia
Terjedelem: 132 oldal
This document defines the core functions of the C-ITS platform including their objectives and capabilities. It identifies user needs and describes how the system will operate. The Concept of Operations is intended to be an input to future decision making and system engineering documents, including system requirements and design documentation.
A C-ITS (együttműködő intelligens közlekedési rendszerek) jövőbeni szolgáltatási helyzetképek kommunikációs technológiái
Communication Technologies for future C-ITS service scenarios
Task Force on Communication technologies for C-ITS
Terjedelem: 41 oldal
This report by the ERTICO Task Force on communication technologies for future C-ITS services aims at providing recommendations to support successful and efficient deployment of C-ITS services, with a particular focus on the appropriate usage of communication technologies in the context of specific quality criteria and costs. For the purpose of this report, C-ITS is understood as systems and services, needing to use different personal, vehicle and road infrastructure components, in order to share and exchange information over diverse communication interfaces. The report starts with showing a scenario where the appropriate communication of an event to all relevant stakeholders provides maximum added value in the context of safety and sustained mobility. This shows that to maximize the value of investments in C-ITS, especially at the early stage, useful data and information captured in any (sub-) system should be made available, non-discriminatory, to every relevant stakeholder by any available communication system. The mission of the Task Force is to promote and inform about the usage of communication technologies in these types of scenario according to their respective performance characteristics in order to provide services appropriate and of high quality for the user along a complex and integrated value chain. In this context, the report presents the existing and nearly forthcoming communication technologies, which are applicable for C-ITS. The report provides details about their characteristics, deployment models, cost structures and provides a mapping between the services and related performance characteristics of communication technologies. The mapping table between services and communication capabilities gives a first idea about the potentially most suitable technologies. However for each situation, several technologies might also be chosen and coexist.
In addition, the report shows the essential requirements for providing and operating C-ITS services. As C-ITS is about information sharing and communication, interoperability is a critical capability for C-ITS systems. Here, the report describes essential features to ensure the necessary level of interoperability among the different C-ITS components. Furthermore, needs for operational requirements were collected and are presented in the report. The report intends to provide guidance for policy makers, procurers, operators and service providers to support decisions on appropriate communication technologies to provide services.
Technológiai útmutató a C-ITS (együttműködő intelligens közlekedési rendszerek) jövőbeni szolgáltatásaihoz
Guide about technologies for future C-ITS services
Task Force on Communication technologies for C-ITS
Terjedelem: 57 oldal
This guide about the technologies for ITS services scenario is to be considered as an extension of the ERTICO Task Force report on Communication Technologies for C-ITS services. This guide is made up of contributions from the task force members as a working material, which has laid the foundation for the report and its conclusions. This guide is intended as a tutorial or guidance for those who need a more detailed insight in the ITS technologies, standards and initiatives. Some parts of the text in the task force report can also be found unchanged in this guide. The pieces of information provided in this guide can possibly reflect some of the differences in the viewpoints of the task force experts involved in the task force. Never the less this guide is expected to be useful as a crash-course in ITS technologies.
A városok szétterjedését szándékolatlanul bátorító vagy támogató közösségi politikák elemzése
Analysis of Public Policies that Unintentionally Encourage and Subsidize Urban Sprawl
Todd Litman Victoria Transport Policy Institute Canada
Terjedelem: 89 oldal
This report investigates evidence that current development policies result in economically excessive sprawl. It defines sprawl and its alternative, “smart growth,” describes various costs and benefits of sprawl, and estimates their magnitude. It identifies policy distortions that encourage sprawl. It discusses factors to consider when determining the optimal amount and type of urban expansion for various types of cities. It discusses the implications of this analysis for rapidly urbanizing countries. It identifies potential policy reforms that could result in more efficient and equitable development patterns, and describes examples of their implementation. It also discusses criticisms of sprawl cost studies and smart growth policies. An abundance of credible research indicates that sprawl significantly increases per capita land development, and by dispersing activities, increases vehicle travel. These physical changes impose various economic costs including reduced agricultural and ecological productivity, increased public infrastructure and service costs, plus increased transport costs including consumer costs, traffic congestion, accidents, pollution emissions, reduced accessibility for non-drivers, and reduced public fitness and health. Sprawl provides various benefits, but these are mostly direct benefits to sprawled community residents, while many costs are external, imposed on non-residents. This analysis indicates that sprawl imposes more than $400 billion dollars in external costs and $625 billion in internal costs annually in the U.S., indicating that smart growth policies which encourage more efficient development can provide large economic, social and environmental benefits. Although these costs reflect North American conditions, the results are transferable to developing countries.
Az útburkolat biztonsági teljesítményének értékelése
Evaluation of Pavement Safety Performance
David K. Merritt, Craig A. Lyon, Bhagwant N. Persaud
The Transtec Group, Inc. USA
Terjedelem: 158 oldal
The intent of this study was to isolate the effects of various low-cost pavement treatments on roadway safety. This was a retrospective study of pavement safety performance, looking back at crash data before and after treatments were installed. Both flexible and rigid pavement treatments were analyzed, with the majority typically used for pavement preservation or minor rehabilitation purposes. Although State highway agencies recognize that most of these treatments generally improve pavement friction, they are not typically installed explicitly for safety improvement, with one exception, high-friction surfacing, which is typically applied as a spot safety treatment. The research was conducted as part of Phase VI of the Federal Highway Administration Evaluation of Low-Cost Safety Improvements Pooled Fund Study (ELCSI–PFS). This pooled fund study (PFS) was established to conduct research on the effectiveness of the safety improvements identified by the National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report 500 guides as part of implementation of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials Strategic Highway Safety Plan. The intent of the work conducted under the various phases of the ELCSI-PFS is to provide a crash modification factor (CMF) and benefit-cost (BC) economic analysis for each of the targeted safety strategies identified as priorities by the PFS States. Under the effort described herein, CMFs and BC ratios were developed for various low-cost pavement treatments.
Többnapos GPS utazási viselkedési adatok felhasználása közlekedési vizsgálatokhoz
Multiday GPS Travel Behavior Data for Travel Analysis
Jennifer Dill, Joseph Broach, Kate Deutsch-Burgner, Yanzhi “Ann” Xu, Randall Guensler, David M. Levinson, Wenyun Tang
Portland State University, Data Perspectives Consulting, Trans/AQ, Inc., University of Minnesota, Federal Highway Administration USA
Terjedelem: 213 oldal
The use of GPS devices to collect trip-specific data as part of household travel surveys has increased steadily in recent years, and will likely become the main mode of travel survey data collection in the future as smartphone-based platforms for collecting travel data come into use. Compared to diary-based methods, the advantages of GPS data capture include the following: the time and location of each trip end can be captured with more precision; there is less potential for respondents to omit entire trips or activities from the survey; the data can be used to trace the route traveled for any particular trip; it becomes more cost-effective to capture multiple days of travel for each respondent.
These unique aspects of GPS data enable new types of behavioral analysis relative to those conducted with more traditional travel survey data. In particular, multiday data capture, in combination with more precise and complete travel data on each day, allows researchers to investigate day-to-day variability in travel behavior at the individual and household level. Such analyses can provide more insight into peoples’ travel patterns at a broader level, and guide future efforts in modeling and predicting travel behavior and designing transportation policies. The two main objectives of this project are: 1) to provide new examples of the type of valuable research that can be done using multiday GPS travel survey data; and 2) to demonstrate that such research can be conducted in the TSDC research environment. Each of the following four chapters describes a research project that was funded and carried out as part of this project.
Az útburkolat egyenletesség elérésének és mérésének legjobb gyakorlata
Best Practices for Achieving and Measuring Pavement Smoothness
David K. Merritt, George K. Chang, Jennifer L. Rutledge
The Transtec Group, Inc. USA
Terjedelem: 58 oldal
Pavement smoothness specifications have evolved significantly over the past decade. More and more states are moving away from profilograph-based smoothness specifications to IRI-based specifications.
Unfortunately, a limited history with the usage of IRI-based specifications has led to some confusion over how best to structure a specification in terms of test methods and profiling equipment, thresholds for full pay/incentive/disincentive, and requirements for localized roughness or “must correct” areas.
This limited history has also led to contractors who were used to profilograph-based specifications struggling to achieve the same level of quality under IRI-based specifications. This synthesis summarizes the current state-of-the-practice for IRI-based pavement smoothness specifications in the US. It highlights recent and current research related the pavement smoothness and provides general best practices for construction to help achieve requirements for IRI-based specifications.
Városi mobilitási rendszerek javítása – hogyan változtathatják meg a városi forgalmat az önállóan vezethető gépkocsik
Urban Mobility System Upgrade How shared self-driving cars could change city traffic
International Transport Forum OECD
Terjedelem: 36 oldal
This report examines the changes that might result from the large-scale uptake of a shared and self-driving fleet of vehicles in a mid-sized European city. The study explores two different self-driving vehicle concepts, for which we have coined the terms “TaxiBot” and “AutoVot”. TaxiBots are self-driving cars that can be shared simultaneously by several passengers. AutoVots pick-up and drop-off single passengers sequentially. We had two premises for this study: First, the urban mobility system upgrade with a fleet of TaxiBots and AutoVots should deliver the same trips as today in terms of origin, destination and timing. Second, it should also replace all car and bus trips. The report looks at impacts on car fleet size, volume of travel and parking requirements over two different time scales: a 24-hour average and for peak hours only.