Nemzetközi szemle: November
Közúti biztonság az európai városokban
Road Safety in European Cities
Szerző(k): The International Transport Forum OECD
Terjedelem: 69 oldal
This reports benchmarks road safety performance in 72 urban areas, mostly in Europe, and illustrates governance solutions to improve urban road safety with case studies conducted in Lisbon (Portugal) and Riga (Latvia). The report proposes new road safety indicators to assess the level of risk for each mode of transport. Data for 31 administrative perimeters collected directly from local governments. Of these, 19 are in Europe, ten in the Americas and two in Oceania. Data for a further 41 functional urban areas (FUA) in Europe were gathered from national and European sources. A network of road safety experts was developed to support the data collection and to share experiences with road safety analysis and policy making. Members of this network met for five rounds of discussions between April 2017 and November 2018 within the framework of ITF’s Safer City Streets initiative. Additional stakeholder interviews and desk research were conducted to outline the role of specific policies and governance frameworks, to highlight practical solutions and to make recommendations for improving urban road safety.
A környezeti tényezők hatása az útburkolat teljesítményére nehéz forgalmi terhelés nélkül
Impact of Environmental Factors on Pavement Performance in the Absence of Heavy Loads
Szerző(k): L. Titus-Glover, M.I. Darter, H. Von Quintus
Applied Research Associates, Inc. USA
Terjedelem: 264 oldal
The objectives of this study were to identify and quantify the effects of environmental factors and pavement design on pavement performance in the absence of heavy loads; establish what the environmental effects are and develop recommendations for mitigating these effects through effective designs, materials selection, and construction; estimate the portion of total pavement damage caused by environmental factors; and establish a database of pavement design features, materials properties, and performance to be used in the future for similar analyses. Site-by-site analyses of the Long-Term Pavement Performance program’s Specific Pavement Study (SPS)-8 sections were conducted. Next, researchers determined the effect of environmental factors in SPS-8 and companion sections from other SPSs and General Pavement Studies (GPSs) on the performance of flexible and rigid pavements. Finally, an estimate of the portion of pavement damage caused by environmental factors was made through a comparison of the pavement damage of low-traffic SPS-8 sections with higher-traffic companion SPS and GPS sections. Results showed an average of 36 and 24 percent of total damage was related to environmental factors for flexible and rigid pavements, respectively, at an age of 15 yr.
Az első meleg aszfalt beépítések tíz éves értékelése Virginia államban
Ten-Year Assessment of Virginia’s First Warm Mix Asphalt Sites
Szerző(k): S.D. Diefenderfer
Virginia Transportation Research Council USA
Terjedelem: 58 oldal
VDOT’s initial warm mix asphalt (WMA) trials were constructed in 2006 and assessed the Sasobit additive and Evotherm DAT technology as compared to a control hot mix asphalt (HMA). The overlays on the sites have been assessed at regular intervals over the course of their lifespan, offering an opportunity to evaluate the long-term performance of these mixtures. This study evaluated the performance of these trial sections over 10 years. During the testing performed as part of this study, cores were taken after 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, 5 years, and 10 years of service to determine the rate of densification under traffic and to evaluate changes in the performance of the mixtures over time; in addition, binder was recovered from the cores and graded to evaluate the progression of aging. Pavement management data were also collected annually and evaluated for two of the three sites to determine the relative performance of the HMA and WMA sections. Results of the investigation verified that the HMA and WMA mixtures performed similarly over 10 years of service. It was found that binder aging is causing a significant change in binder properties in service for both HMA and WMA that may affect mixture performance. In addition, relationships between performance-based properties of mixtures and in-service pavement performance were found to be promising, but they need further evaluation.
Forgalmi menedzsment útmutató 1. rész: bevezetés a forgalmi menedzsmentbe
Guide to Traffic Management Part 1: Introduction to Traffic Management
Szerző(k): C. Han, J. Luk
(a letöltéshez ingyenes regisztráció szükséges)
Terjedelem: 22 oldal
The Austroads Guide to Traffic Management has 13 Parts and provides comprehensive coverage of traffic management guidance for practitioners involved in traffic engineering, road design and road safety. Part 1: Introduction to Traffic Management provides an introduction to the discipline of traffic management and an overview of the structure and content of the Guide. It outlines the breadth of the subject, the distribution of content among the various Parts of the Guide, and the relationship with other Guides such as those for Road Design, Road Safety and Road Transport Planning. Part 1 introduces traffic management in a practical context, and presents fundamental definitions, principles and objectives. It introduces functional road hierarchy as an essential concept, and outlines the basic elements of traffic management and their application. It provides an overview of how the various parts of the Guide would typically be used by a wide range of practitioners.
Fenntartható aszfalt burkolatok gyakorlati útmutatója
Sustainable Asphalt Pavements: A Practical Guide
Szerző(k): S.T. Muench , A.J. Hand
National Asphalt Pavement Association USA
Terjedelem: 62 oldal
This is the second of four publications in the NAPA Sustainable Asphalt Pavements: A Practical Guide series meant to provide a practical guide to sustainability. That means a focus on what a NAPA member business or asphalt project can do now to address sustainability within the confines of good business practice. The four publications in this series are meant to work together and are organized as follows: 1. SIP 101: Sustainability Overview. A practical definition of sustainability and the elements of and reasons for a business approach to sustainability. 2. SIP 102: Sustainability Specifics. Specific sustainability actions that can be taken in corporate/organizational strategy, project delivery, mix design, materials production, construction activities, and pavement design. 3. SIP 103: Procuring & Evaluating Sustainability. How sustainability is included in public project procurement, and how sustainability efforts are evaluated within the industry. 4. SIP 104: How to Develop a Sustainability Program. Important components of a company sustainability program including goals, best practices, implementation, and reporting.
Az elérhetőség összehasonlító értékelése a városokban: a közelség és a közlekedési teljesítmény hatásának értékelése
Benchmarking Accessibility in Cities: Measuring the Impact of Proximity and Transport Performance
Szerző(k): The International Transport Forum OECD
Terjedelem: 83 oldal
This report presents a new urban accessibility framework. It identifies which destinations can be reached on foot, by bicycle, public transport or car within a certain time (accessibility). It then measures how many destinations are close by (proximity). The comparison between accessible destinations and nearby destinations shows how well each transport mode performs (transport performance). These three indicators are calculated for destinations such as schools, hospitals, food shops, restaurants, people, recreational opportunities and green spaces in 121 cities in 30 European countries. This report differs from previous accessibility studies in five important ways. First, it captures transport performance independent of city size. In standard accessibility indicators, city size often heavily influences the results. Secondly, it uses a harmonised definition of a city developed by the European Union and the OECD. This defines a “functional urban area” as a city and its surrounding commuting zone. Thirdly, it includes significantly more cities and a large number of countries. Fourth, its indicators cover a broader range of typical urban destinations. Finally, four different transport modes are captured, namely walking, cycling, public transport and the car.
Eső mennyiség határértékek földcsuszamlásokhoz
Rainfall Thresholds for Landslides
Szerző(k): M.G. Winter, F. Ognissanto, L.A. Martin
TRL Transport Research Laboratory UK
Terjedelem: 88 oldal
This report considers the recent history of debris flow in Scotland as it relates to the trunk (strategic) road network and the rainfall climate of Scotland. The development of a deterministic rainfall threshold for Scotland is described in the context of a brief review of international rainfall trigger thresholds. This highlights the potential for a probabilistic approach to be taken to the development of such thresholds; and for rainfall event data that does not lead to a landslide, as well as rainfall event data that does lead to a landslide, to be incorporated into the analysis. The probabilistic analyses presented here use Bayes’ theorem to undertake both one-dimensional analyses (for rainfall duration and intensity, and total rainfall) and two-dimensional analyses (for paired values of rainfall duration and intensity) to determine conditional landslide probability. Probabilistic thresholds for the conditional probability of landslide occurrence dependent on rainfall duration and intensity P(D|I) are derived in the range 0.05 (5%) to 0.3 (30%). It is proposed that a formal trial be undertaken of a probabilistic landslide forecast system.
Átfogó autóbusz hálózati újratervezés
Comprehensive Bus Network Redesigns
Szerző(k): L.B. Byala, K. Filardo, O. Hirsch, M.J. Walk, J.P. Cardenas, J. Hwang
Foursquare Integrated Transportation Planning, Inc., Texas A&M Transportation Institute, USA
Terjedelem: 203 oldal
This synthesis provides an overview of the current state of practice regarding comprehensive bus network redesign. The study (prepared by Lora B. Byala and her team from Foursquare Integrated Transportation Planning, Inc., and Texas A&M Transportation Institute) captures the state of the practice among agencies of different sizes, geographic locations, and modes. The study presents a literature review and results of a survey of transit agencies having current or prior experience with considering, planning, and/or implementing a bus system redesign. Thirty eight completed responses were received from the 49 agencies in the survey sample—a response rate of 78%. Case examples of five transit systems are provided; these present an in-depth analysis of the processes and considerations, challenges, lessons learned, and keys to success. This synthesis will assist those transit agencies considering redesigning their bus networks. Because the report presents the reality and complexity of conducting a bus network redesign, agencies who use it will be able to make better decisions about the process.
Főúthálózati torlódásos szúk keresztmetszetek javított azonosítása és jellemzése
Improving the Identification and Characterization of Arterial Congestion Bottlenecks
Szerző(k): M. Zhao, R. Venkatanarayana
Virginia Transportation Research Council USA
Terjedelem: 59 oldal
Performance-based and data-driven approaches are increasingly employed by transportation professionals to provide a strong foundation for making sound decisions and for optimizing investments. This study developed and evaluated one such method for identifying and ranking traffic bottlenecks. Bottleneck analysis tools currently available to the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) typically analyze links along a roadway and do not consider the conditions on the side streets at intersections. This study proposed a new sketch planning bottleneck analysis and ranking method for arterial intersections using a node-link approach that examines all intersection approaches. The methodology uses widely available datasets such as probe vehicle speeds and annual average daily traffic (AADT). Impacts of different congestion threshold speeds and queue estimation methodologies were studied. A tool was developed to summarize, visualize, and drill down the results interactively. A case study was conducted using a Northern Virginia urban arterial network with 245 nodes, and an expert panel validated the study results with their field observations. Their comments and feedback showed high confidence in the results, pointing to the success of this proof-of-concept study. Additional feedback from VDOT, the Virginia Office of Intermodal Planning and Investment (OIPI), and localities indicated their high interest in using this methodology mainly because of the quantitative performance measures and the ability to support data-driven decision making. Their intended use cases include improved planning, funding, and evaluation of bottleneck mitigation solutions across their region and the state. Several lessons were learned during this study and documented, which will help to scale up this methodology for potential statewide adoption.
Központi jelzőlámpás forgalomirányító rendszer értékelése és a legjobb gyakorlat megvalósítása
Evaluation of a Central Traffic Signal System and Best Practices for Implementation
Szerző(k): G. Parikh, J. Hourdos
University of Minnesota USA
Terjedelem: 124 oldal
Detailed Intersection Control Information (ICI), including timing, phasing, geometric, and demand attributes, is an increasingly important resource for researchers, consultants, and private sector companies for many applications, including development of traffic models and technologies such as vehicle information or automation systems. While this information has historically been difficult to distribute due to variations in the availability and format across the numerous jurisdictions that operate signals, recent trends toward increased use of Central Traffic Signal Control Systems (CTSCSs) have made creation of a unified, standardized system for organizing ICI more feasible. To help work toward this, in this project researchers interviewed and surveyed signal operation engineers and transportation modelers throughout Minnesota to learn how different jurisdictions manage information relating to their signals and how this information is used for operations and planning. With this information, researchers developed a comprehensive Unified Set of Intersection Control Information (U-ICI) that contains all the information required to describe the control of an intersection in a format that is readable by both humans and machines. Along with this, researchers evaluated the availability of this information and the feasibility of using existing CTSCS applications to store this information. While the researchers conclude that it is not feasible to use these applications to store all of the U-ICI, the applications will likely make the process of implementing and populating such a system easier. Though some information may be contained in formats that will require manual effort to digitize, the up-front effort to do so will be a worthwhile pursuit.