Nemzetközi szemle: December
Kis forgalmú utak beruházásainak sorolási módszerei
Szerzők: Stein, G. Weisbrod; M. Sieber (Transportation Research Board USA)
Terjedelem: 73 oldal
Low-volume roads (LVRs) are at a disadvantage relative to other roads within traditional investment prioritization processes that focus on volume-based metrics of benefit and impact. However, LVRs can also create significant value for the wider economy and society, by providing basic access to remote communities, ensuring connectivity (particularly last mile connectivity) for industry to a global economy, and supporting economic development opportunities. A growing recognition of the need to go beyond standard transportation asset management approaches to capture the importance of LVR investments in agency prioritization practice motivated this research. The report documents current practices used by transportation agencies to make investment decisions about LVRs. The intention of the report is to help transportation officials in charge of resource allocation decisions at state departments of transportation (DOTs), as well as at regional and local agencies, respond to the challenge of accounting for broader economic, social, and environmental implications of LVR projects. The report also addresses the challenge that decision makers may face to communicate the value of such investments to stakeholders in an era of limited funds and constantly changing demands on the transportation system. The primary focus of the synthesis is on investment prioritization methods. However, the research also touches on a range of decision-making issues including funding program definition, programmatic resource allocation, and other planning and management activities that directly affect investments made in LVRs.
A nem ismétlődő eseményekről adott utazási információ helyzetképe
Szerzők: Robinson, E. Lubar, J. Singer, D. Kellman, B. Katz, S. Kuznicki (Leidos, Inc., Westat, Toxcel, USA)
Terjedelem: 76 oldal
The Federal Highway Administration has recognized the need to take a comprehensive look at the information requirements and decision making processes of travelers across a range of nonrecurring events. The goal of this study was to review and synthesize information about travelers’ information needs and current practices for information dissemination related to nonrecurring events. Researchers identified, reviewed, and synthesized academic literature, practitioner reports, and best practices for information provision related to nonrecurring events. This report discusses user needs, best practices, data collection and information dissemination technologies, and knowledge gaps. Case studies and information dissemination strategies are also provided.
Az internet használatának hatása a közlekedési igényekre
Szerzők: Bowie, M. Trotter, L. Baker, L. Early, C. Robertson (Opus Research New Zealand)
Terjedelem: 54 oldal
This report presents a discussion of the influence that internet-enabled communication technologies are having, and might have, on patterns of transport demand in New Zealand. First, a range of mechanisms by which the internet could reasonably be expected to influence transport demand are described. In-depth interviews with decision makers at public and private organisations in New Zealand highlighted two main areas where change is being driven by internet communication technologies: direct effects on transport demand; and the changing nature of the physical workplace, which has outcomes for transport demand as people change where, when and how they work.
There is a dearth of literature that quantifies a causal association between use of the internet and transport demand. Additionally, suitable datasets to measure the influence at city, regional or national levels do not currently exist in New Zealand. Much investment and change in use of internet communications technologies is taking place at an organisational scale. Though, the relationship between investment in technology and transport outcomes is confounded by factors of behavioural preferences, societal and organisational norms, and internal policies. The experience of these organisations identifies changes we can expect for both transport demand and working behaviours in an increasingly digital society.
Az előrebecsülhető közforgalmú közlekedés nemzeti mérőszámainak fejlesztése: busz, vasút és komp
Szerzők: S Rashidi, L Schmitt, P Ranjitkar, T Rabel, S Sood, L Baker, V Ivory and H Rezaie (Opus International Consultants New Zealand)
Terjedelem: 81 oldal
The ability to reliably predict PT journey times is critical for network operators and transport authorities to measure, monitor and target improvements to the PT network, with flow-on effects for customers. Research conducted in New Zealand between August 2016 and August 2017 aimed to identify and develop an optimal measure for PT predictability. This involved undertaking a local and international review of predictability/reliability measures used for PT or private vehicle travel, and included evaluation of measures. From this review, and consideration of the potential for inter-modal and inter-regional aggregation, a shortlist of three preferred measures was developed including: buffer index, modified buffer index and planning index. Shortlisted measures were applied to a nationally aggregated set of PT travel data from across regions and PT modes. This data testing helped assess ‘fit’ to the NZ Transport Agency’s road index, modification potential, and revealed that the shortlisted measures are all linearly related, with comparable results across different measures. This suggested there was not a compelling case for one particular measure to be used. Validation workshops further revealed that stakeholders felt selection of any shortlisted measures depended on what aspect of reliability one wanted to examine and that care needed to be taken in comparing modes and developing thresholds.
A biztonsági és forgalom menedzselési (intelligens) technológiák előnyei
Benefits of Safety and Traffic Management Technologies (letöltés ingyenes regisztráció után)
Szerző(k): Mitchell, G. Geers, G. Hodgson, P. Imants, A. Hassan, N. Elazar (Austroads Ltd. Australia)
Terjedelem: 116 oldal
This report details the results of a domestic and international review of recently-developed intelligent transport systems technologies, including a qualitative indication of their costs and benefits. A total of 70 technologies were identified of which 25 are under the direct purview of Austroads member agencies. A process for evaluating the technical quality of publications was developed and applied to 39 studies.
Burkolat teljesítmény jellemzők validálása a hosszú távú burkolatviselkedési adatok alapján: zárójelentés
Szerzők: B.A. Visintine, A.L. Simpson, G.R. Rada (Amec Foster Wheeler Environment & Infrastructure, Inc. USA)
Terjedelem: 90 oldal
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking to establish performance measures for the Interstate Highway System (IHS) and the National Highway System (NHS) to assess the condition of the pavement on the IHS and NHS.(1) The performance measures, as proposed by FHWA, to assess the condition of the pavement are based on the percentage of pavements on both the IHS and NHS (excluding the IHS) in good and poor condition. The condition of the pavements is to be determined based on the following metrics: International Roughness Index, cracking percent, rutting, and faulting. The overall objective of the study was to validate the proposed pavement performance measures and demonstrate their use within asset management. Performance and distress data from the Long-Term Pavement Performance database were translated into the pavement condition metrics used by the performance measure proposed by FHWA. The performance measure validation considered review of the performance measures over time to determine if they followed a logical trend; comparison of performance measures against maintenance and rehabilitation (M&R) activities to demonstrate if the performance measures are impacted by M&R activities; and review of the performance measures against thresholds for logic and reproducibility, temporal analysis, effects of alternate thresholds, and identification of performance measure drivers. Standalone guidelines for informing decision making to affect pavement performance measures were also developed based on the study findings; they are provided in a companion report.
A vagyongazdálkodás folyamatos javítása: háttér kutatás
(letöltés ingyenes regisztráció után)
Szerző: Nguyen, A. Hughes (Austroads Ltd. Australia)
Terjedelem: 98 oldal
This report aims to provide asset management practitioners, in both small and large organisations, with an understanding of the methodology utilised in creating a framework for successful continual improvement implementation. The findings from the literature review, stakeholder engagement process and case studies are discussed within this report. The identified key issues surrounding enabling and sustaining continual improvement related to leadership, organisational culture and a need to create a framework tailored to the specific needs of road agencies. The proposed approaches are outlined, resulting in a five-step framework for the enablement and successful implementation of continual improvement. The report concludes with recommendations on the subsequent steps to be taken. Supporting information and tools are detailed in the appendices.
A vagyongazdálkodás folyamatos javítása: útmutató
(letöltés ingyenes regisztráció után)
Szerző: Hughes, K. Nguyen (Austroads Ltd. Australia)
Terjedelem: 61 oldal
This guideline has been prepared in response to the need for a more structured approach to continual improvement in asset management. National, state and local governments in Australia and New Zealand are collectively responsible for over 900,000 kilometres of road, valued at more than $250 billion. Surveys have indicated road management organisations do not always have a structured continual improvement process that satisfies the requirements of ISO55001:2014 Asset management – Asset management – Management Systems – Requirements. Having a structured process in place has the potential to provide significant value to organisations. The guideline aims to provide asset management practitioners with an understanding of the factors that contribute to enabling and sustaining continual improvement. The current challenges within the industry in relation to continual improvement are discussed, with a framework provided for successful implementation. This document suggests that at the core of every successful organisation implementing continual improvement, is a supportive and enabling environment. Once this environment is achieved, continual improvement will become second nature. The guideline was developed through research and extensive engagement with around 80 industry professionals.
Vízszintes ívek átalakításának biztonsági értékelése két sávos külsőségi utakon
Szerzők: Srinivasan, D. Carter, C. Lyon, M. Albee (VHB Austria, University of North Carolina USA)
Terjedelem: 58 oldal
The Development of Crash Modification Factors program conducted safety evaluation of horizontal curve realignment on rural, two-lane roads for the Evaluation of Low Cost Safety Improvements Pooled Fund Study. The goal of this evaluation is to evaluate the safety effectiveness of this strategy. This strategy sought to reduce lane departure crashes, especially run-off-road crashes. This study determined the crash modification factors (CMFs) associated with curve realignment using the before–after empirical Bayes method and compared the results from published CMFs from cross-sectional studies. This evaluation used data from rural, two-lane roads in California, North Carolina, and Ohio. The evaluation revealed a 68-percent reduction in total crashes, a 74-percent reduction in injury and fatal crashes, a 78-percent reduction in run-off-road and fixed object crashes, a 42-percent reduction in dark crashes, and an 80-percent reduction in wet crashes, all of which were statistically significant at the 95-percent confidence level.
Komplex csomópontok biztonságának és működésének javítása jelzésekkel és integrált geometriával
Szerzők: Jackson, B. Katz, S. Kuznicki, E. Kissner, N. Kehoe, S. Miller (Toxcel, LLC, Leidos, Inc. USA)
Terjedelem: 274 oldal
The purpose of this study was to develop recommendations for signing, delineation, and geometric design that will reduce workloads at critical points approaching interchanges that exhibit a high degree of complexity. In the development of these recommendations, the following activities were completed: identification of attributes influencing interchange complexity; evaluation of current geometric design, signing, and marking practices; a simulator study investigating driver behavior at different interchange layouts; and a field study investigating real world driver behavior at complex interchanges. This report details the process and outcomes of these activities to develop key findings with regard to traffic control devices, pavement markings, and geometric design being implemented across the country. Six categories of recommendations (“treatments”) were identified and discussed. Each treatment is the result of understanding the interrelationships of various attributes within each research topic and the application of those relationships to practice outcomes. The report describes each treatment with examples of undesirable practices as well as anticipated and observed outcomes, provides existing design guidelines with a general perspective on implementations in multiple jurisdictions, outlines the primary principles of the concept, provides application examples, provides specific recommendations to address undesirable practices, and summarizes the breadth and depth of implementation options.