Nemzetközi szemle: Április
A közösségi közlekedést használók gyaloglási tűrésének vizsgálata
Exploring the Walking Tolerance of Transitway Users
J. Cao, J. Lampe, C. Zhang
University of Minnesota USA
Terjedelem: 53 oldal
To park or to develop is always a key question for transit station area planning. Planners are interested in a hybrid option: siting park-and-ride (P&R) facilities at the periphery of development around transitway stations. However, the literature offers little evidence on how far a P&R lot can be located from transitways while maximizing ridership and revenue. Using a stated preference survey of 568 P&R users in the Twin Cities, this study conducted several experiments to illustrate their walking tolerance and identify built environment attributes that influence the walking distance. Walking distance is much more important than intersection safety, pedestrian infrastructure, and building appearance in affecting P&R users’ choice. The average walking distance is three city blocks when the minimum walking distance is set as two blocks in the experiments. Intersection safety, pedestrian infrastructure, and building appearance help mitigate the disutility of walking distance. If all three characteristics are adequate, it seems that P&R users are willing to walk 1.8 blocks farther than their existing facilities. A further analysis shows that the effects of these four dimensions vary by transit type. The analysis of stated importance illustrates that when determining how far P&R users are willing to walk, they value snow clearance, street lighting, and intersection safety the most. In general, the quality of sidewalk network connecting transit stops and P&R facilities is the most important, followed by safety and security attributes associated with the walking environment. However, the aesthetic quality seems to be the least important for P&R users.
Utazási teljesítményt számszerűsítő vázlatszintű eszközök értékelése
Evaluation of Sketch-Level Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) Quantification Tools
A. Lee, K. Fang, S. Handy
University of California USA
Terjedelem: 60 oldal
The State of California has enacted ambitious policies that aim to reduce the state’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Some of these policies focus on reducing the amount of driving throughout the state, measured in vehicle miles traveled (VMT), given that transportation, primarily automobile use, is the largest single source of California’s GHG emissions. To encourage local plans and projects that reduce VMT, California has established several grant programs to which local jurisdictions may apply.
These grant programs have generated a need for methods to estimate the potential VMT – and thus GHG – impacts of proposed planning efforts, land development projects, and transportation projects. A range of VMT estimation methods are available for use by funding applicants. Regional travel demand models, for example, are used to estimate the VMT and GHG implications of alternative scenarios in the development of federally-required regional transportation plans and state-required sustainable communities’ strategies. These models are resource intensive, however, requiring modeling expertise and sometimes many days to complete a single analysis. To fill the need for less resource-intensive methods more appropriate for localized plans and individual projects, upwards of a dozen “sketch” tools have been developed. These sketch tools vary in their approach and appropriateness for the breadth of development projects and project locations in the state. Practitioners are often unsure as to which method to use for a particular project and have little information to guide their choice. In this report we compare and evaluate VMT estimation tools across a sample of land use projects. We compare the results from different tools for each project, consider the applicability of methods in particular contexts and for different types of projects, and assess data needs, relative ease of use, and other practical considerations.
Elektromos járművek töltő infrastruktúrájának kialakuló legjobb gyakorlata
Emerging best practices for electric vehicle charging infrastructure
D. Hall, N. Lutsey
International Council on Clean Transportation USA
Terjedelem: 54 oldal
Electric vehicles offer great potential to dramatically reduce local air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and resulting climate change impacts, and oil use from the transport sector. With electric vehicle costs steadily falling, the transition continues to become more feasible. This potential is enabled and made compelling by the ubiquity of electricity and the growing availability of low-carbon, renewable energy sources. Yet there are unanswered questions about the deployment of electric vehicle charging infrastructure and the associated policy that will need to be addressed to help pave the way for electrification. This report provides a global assessment of charging infrastructure deployment practices, challenges, and emerging best practices in major electric vehicle markets, with an emphasis on public charging facilities. Although most early adopters charge their vehicles at home, public charging is an important part of the electric vehicle ecosystem. We analyze public charging infrastructure in the top electric vehicle markets globally, including a statistical analysis of the relationship between public charging and electric vehicle uptake. Our analysis is at the metropolitan-area level to better discern local infrastructure variation, practices, and circumstances.
Az árumozgások, a gazdasági fejlődés és a hálózati teljesítmény rendszerdinamikai vizsgálata
System dynamics investigation of freight flows, economic development and network performance
A. Stroombergen, G. Stuart, T. Barsanti
Infometrics Consulting Ltd, Future Impact Ltd, Transport Futures Consulting Ltd, New-Zealand
Terjedelem: 55 oldal
The purpose of this research was to investigate if and how systems dynamic (SD) modelling could be used for understanding traffic flows at an inter-regional (state highway) level, in the context of improving understanding of the relationship between economic activity, the demand for freight, and the performance of the rail and road network. We used the Auckland – Hamilton – Tauranga (AHT) triangle as a pilot case study. The research involved the design and construction of three models; two simple Bayesian vector autoregressive model to forecast economic activity and freight flows within the AHT region, and a high level SD model for simulating freight flows along the main roads in the region. The key strength, and hence the main reason for selecting an SD model for this latter task, is that time is explicit. This means the SD model can simulate processes such as traffic flows, encompassing delays, congestion and capacity constraints. The SD model can be used to ask ‘what if’ questions around future freight growth and infrastructure planning. Examples include road improvements along the Waikato Expressway and the Kaimai Range, greater use of larger (HPMV) trucks, changes in driver working hours and road–rail substitution.
A közösségi közlekedés hatása a vidéki kisvárosokra
Public Transit’s Impact on Rural and Small Towns
Victoria Transport Policy Institute USA
Terjedelem: 48 oldal
Rural communities and small towns have much to offer, including a sense of community, affordable housing and access to open space. However, many of these areas are currently experiencing population declines due to various demographic and economic trends. An aging population, industrial shifts, changing consumer preferences and diminishing local services have all contributed to rural stagnation.
Like people anywhere, rural and small town residents rely on transportation to access jobs, schools, medical facilities, retail shopping, recreation, social events and other services. This can be challenging in these areas because of lengthy travel distances and limited travel options, particularly for people with limited ability to drive. While it is sometimes assumed that public transportation is only essential for large urban areas with significant traffic congestion, this report shows that public transportation can also play an important role in rural areas and small towns. Although public transit serves a minor portion of total rural travel, the trips that are provided are particularly valuable. By examining current trends, this report reveals the increasingly critical connection between public transit and rural communities and small towns. This paper also looks at rural public transit cost efficiency, and describes successful examples of smaller community public transit programs.
Csomóponti ütközésre figyelmeztető rendszerek értékelése Minnesota államban
Evaluation of Intersection Collision Warning Systems in Minnesota
S.L. Hallmark, N. Hawkins, R. Thapa, S. Knickerbocker, J. Gaspar
Iowa State University USA
Terjedelem: 57 oldal
The Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT) is investing significant resources in intersection collision warning systems (ICWS) based on early indications of effectiveness. However, the effectiveness is not well documented, and negative changes in driver behavior at treatment intersections may affect drivers overall, resulting in a spillover effect. Moreover, the effectiveness of ICWS may decrease if drivers do not perceive a change in the dynamic messages. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to (1) evaluate driver behavior at mainline and stop-controlled approaches for intersections with and without ICWS and (2) assess the traffic volume range and limits where the system is nearly continuously activated and is likely to lose its effectiveness. Video data were collected at five treatment and corresponding control intersections, and various metrics were used to compare changes in driver behavior. In general, no negative behaviors were noted for either treatment or control intersections.
Burkolat megőrzési beavatkozások teljesítményhez kapcsolódó előírásai
Performance-Related Specifications for Pavement Preservation Treatments
K. Chatti, S.W. Haider, R.J. Eisma, G. Musunuru, Y.R. Kim, C. Castorena, J. Adams
Michigan State University, North Carolina State University, USA
Terjedelem: 156 oldal
This report presents guidelines for use in preparing performance-related specifications (PRS) for pavement preservation treatments and, if desired, determining pay adjustment factors and illustrates the applicability of these guidelines for selected preservation treatments for flexible and rigid pavements. The guidelines follow a systematic process that considers acceptance quality characteristics and performance measures for preservation treatments. The information contained in the report will be of immediate interest to state materials and maintenance engineers and others involved with the specification and quality aspects of pavement preservation treatments.
Pihenőhelyek fenntartható tervezése és üzemeltetése
Sustainable Rest Area Design and Operations
A. Plovnick, A. Berthaume, C. Poe, T. Hodges
John A Volpe National Transportation Systems Center USA
Terjedelem: 31 oldal
One way in which State Departments of Transportation (DOTs) can modernize their rest areas while reducing operations and maintenance costs is by incorporating sustainable practices into rest area design and operations. Sustainability practices that DOTs have pursued at their rest areas include green building design, changing operations procedures, using on-site renewable energy, and tracking rest area performance and educating the public about sustainability. DOTs in Florida, North Carolina, Colorado, Georgia, and Vermont have constructed or renovated rest areas in ways that reduce energy usage and carbon emissions, minimize environmental impact, and in many cases save money.
Közösségi közlekedési megállók elhelyezésének hatása a gyalogosok biztonságára
Impact of Transit Stop Location on Pedestrian Safety
B. Pessaro, M. Catalá, Z. Wang, M. Spicer
University of South Florida USA
Terjedelem: 143 oldal
This research involved a GIS analysis of pedestrian crashes that occurred within 100 feet of bus stops in Broward County and Palm Beach County, Florida between 2011 and 2014. There were 357 such pedestrian crashes in Broward County and 221 in Palm Beach County. Only 18 of the crashes in Broward County, or 5 percent, involved a bus patron. In Palm Beach County, it was 8 of the crashes or 3.6 percent. When reviewing the crash reports, the single most recurring theme was pedestrians not using the crosswalk or crossing against the traffic light. After the crashes were mapped, the bus stops were ranked for pedestrian safety based on three weighted variables: the number of pedestrian crashes within 100 feet of that bus stop, the annual average daily traffic of the street, and the number of bus passenger on/offs at that bus stop. A road safety audit (RSA) was conducted at five intersection locations in Broward County and another five intersections in Palm Beach County by a cross-disciplinary team. The RSA team was composed of university researchers, state and local government transportation engineers and planners, and transit agency staff. During the audit, numerous instances of pedestrians crossing mid-block were observed and documented. The RSA resulted in specific pedestrian safety improvements being recommended. More importantly, a systematic process was created whereby the Florida Department of Transportation can regularly evaluate bus stop locations for pedestrian safety.
Az önvezető járművek biztonságának biztosítása
Assuring the safety of automated vehicles
National Transport Commission Australia
Terjedelem: 57 oldal
This policy paper sets out the high-level design of a safety assurance system for automated vehicles in Australia based on mandatory self-certification until the development of international standards for automated driving systems. This paper identifies key steps to implement the safety assurance system by 2020, including legislative and registration changes and the development of administrative functions.