Nemzetközi szemle: Augusztus
A Teljes utcák project hatásának mérése: előzetes helyszíni tesztelés
Measuring the Impact of Complete Streets Projects: Preliminary Field Testing
J.A. Lenker, J.L. Maisel, M.E. Ranahan
Research Foundation of SUNY, University at Buffalo, USA
Terjedelem: 115 oldal
This report describes a field study that sought to assess the impact of Complete Streets (CS) projects in Buffalo, NY. Multiple data collection tools were deployed to capture a diversity of impacts on 8 street corridors where CS projects have been implemented or are planned. The goals were to evaluate Buffalo’s CS initiative and explore the feasibility of the data collection methods. The survey responses from residents, merchants, and streetscape users indicate that Buffalo’s CS projects have been popular among all three groups. Upcoming CS projects are targeting corridors that currently have low perceived streetscape quality. When pre- and post-implementation data points are available, the analysis indicates that CS corridors absorb higher volumes of vehicles, pedestrians, and bicyclists and become safer in terms of total crashes and injuries. With modest funding, the current study could be scaled-up to assess CS programs in other New York State municipalities. Streamlined approaches to capturing the survey information are yet needed. Ongoing CS data collection needs to become a shared priority among local Metropolitan Planning Organizations, Departments of Public Works, and CS groups. In order to meaningfully assess impact data, these local groups need to maintain a minimum data set for each CS project.
Útburkolati beavatkozások teljesítmény értékelése Iowa államban adatelemzéssel
Historical Performance Evaluation of Iowa Pavement Treatments Using Data Analytics
H.D. Jeong, O. Smadi, A. Abdelaty
Iowa State University USA
Terjedelem: 128 oldal
The pavement network in Iowa has reached a mature state making maintenance and rehabilitation activities more important than new construction. As such, a need exists to evaluate the performance of the pavement treatments and estimate their performance lives to support future maintenance and rehabilitation decisions. This evaluation can be achieved by examining the pavement condition data before and after any treatment method was applied. However, the pavement condition data for Iowa roads stored in the Iowa Department of Transportation’s (DOT’s) geographic information system (GIS) were not compatible with the preservation and rehabilitation project data available from the Iowa DOT Office of Contracts. Therefore, this study used GIS tools and methods, such as the Iowa DOT’s linear referencing system (LRS) and geoprocessing tools, to spatially integrate the two databases and examine the pavement conditions before and after the application of pavement treatments. Afterward, data analytics were conducted to evaluate the actual pavement performance information and estimate the service life of each treatment method using different performance indicators. Moreover, pavement performance analysis developed at the distress-level scale found that most of the analyzed segments had irregular patterns in terms of longitudinal cracks, transverse cracks, alligator cracks, and longitudinal cracks on the wheelpaths. On the other hand, the researchers found that rutting and the International Roughness Index (IRI) were the most consistent pavement performance indicators. As such, these two indicators were used to estimate the average service lives of the rehabilitation treatments. Based on the analysis conducted, hot-mix asphalt (HMA) resurfacing, HMA resurfacing with milling, and HMA resurfacing with cold in-place recycling (CIPR) have longer service lives when the IRI was used as a performance indicator. In addition, HMA resurfacing with CIPR outperformed HMA resurfacing with or without milling when traffic loadings were low.
Okos közlekedés Texasban: az összekapcsolt és önvezető közlekedési rendszer előnyeinek biztosítása Texasban – zárójelentés
Bringing Smart Transport to Texans: Ensuring the Benefits of a Connected and Autonomous Transport System in Texas – Final Report
K. Kockelman, S. Boyles, P. Avery, C. Claudel, L. Loftus-Otway, D. Fagnant, P. Bansal, M.W. Levin, Y. Zhao, J. Liu, L. Clements, W. Wagner, D. Stewart, G. Sharon, M. Albert, P. Stone, J. Hanna, R. Patel, H. Fritz, T. Choudhary, T. Li, A. Nichols, K. Sharma, M. Simoni
The University of Texas at Austin USA
Terjedelem: 385 oldal
This project develops and demonstrates a variety of smart-transport technologies, policies, and practices for highways and freeways using connected autonomous vehicles (CAVs), smartphones, roadside equipment, and related technologies. The intent is to maximize the benefit of these technologies in terms of improved driver safety, reduced congestion, and agency cost savings. For example, in a well-implemented system, advanced CAV technologies may reduce current crash costs by at least $390 billion per year. A poorly implemented system could significantly detract from or reverse these benefits. The project’s Phase 1, documented in this report, showcased DSRC-instrumented vehicles for wrong-way driving alerts, vehicle guidance, and road-surface condition monitoring demonstrations. It developed algorithms for more accurate vehicle-position information and real-time traffic flow monitoring. It delivered statewide and national forecasts of fleet evolution, consumer preferences, and Texans’ opinions of CAV policies and technologies. It also simulated various strategies for smart ramp merges and smart intersection and network operations, under thousands of case settings, with calculated delay reductions. It anticipated emissions savings from more thoughtful automated driving and crash savings from more conflict-aware driving. It also analyzed the benefits of shared autonomous vehicle transit. Recommendations are provided for guiding TxDOT as technologies increasingly become available to the public, estimated to impact the U. S. economy by as much as $1.3 trillion per year. Recommendations focus on the need for increasing TxDOT in-house expertise, simulating new systems, developing policy, and updating design manuals.
Kerékpáros és gyalogos forgalomszámlálás kezdeményezése Minnesota államban: a kerékpáros és gyalogos forgalomfigyelésének rendszeressé tétele
The Minnesota Bicycle and Pedestrian Counting Initiative: Institutionalizing Bicycle and Pedestrian Monitoring
G. Lindsey, M. Petesch, T. Vorvick, L. Austin, B. Holdhusen
University of Minnesota USA
Terjedelem: 114 oldal
The Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT) launched the Minnesota Bicycle and Pedestrian Counting Initiative in 2011, a statewide, collaborative effort to encourage and support non-motorized traffic monitoring. This report summarizes work by MnDOT and the University of Minnesota between 2014 and 2016 to institutionalize bicycle and pedestrian monitoring. The project team established a new statewide bicycle and pedestrian traffic monitoring network with 25 permanent monitoring locations and a new district-based portable counting equipment loan program. Other key accomplishments included Minnesota’s first Bicycle and Pedestrian Annual Traffic Monitoring Report, a new MnDOT website for reporting annual and short-duration counts, and a new Bicycle and Pedestrian Data Collection Manual that local jurisdictions and consultants can use to design manual and automated non-motorized traffic monitoring programs. The project team also included provisions in MnDOT equipment vendor agreements that enable local governments to purchase bicycle and monitoring equipment; established new annual training programs for bicycle and pedestrian monitoring; and contributed provisions in the Statewide Bicycle System Plan and Minnesota Walks that call for bicycle and pedestrian traffic monitoring and creation of performance measures based on counts. Despite this progress, challenges in implementing monitoring remain and continued investment in and support for bicycle and traffic monitoring is needed
Kerékpáros és gyalogos forgalom adatfelvételi kézikönyv
Bicycle and Pedestrian Data Collection Manual
E. Minge, C. Falero, G. Lindsey, M. Petesch, T. Vorvick
SRF Consulting Group, Inc., University of Minnesota USA
Terjedelem: 111 oldal
The Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT) launched the Minnesota Bicycle and Pedestrian Counting Initiative in 2011, a statewide, collaborative effort to encourage and support non-motorized traffic monitoring. One of the objectives of the Initiative was to provide guidance related to monitoring bicycle and pedestrian traffic. This manual is an introductory guide nonmotorized traffic monitoring. The manual describes general traffic monitoring principles; bicycle and pedestrian data collection sensors; how to perform counts; data management and analysis; and the next steps for bicycle and pedestrian traffic monitoring in Minnesota. The manual also includes several case studies that illustrate how bicycle and pedestrian traffic data can be used to support transportation planning and engineering.
A következő generáció közlekedési megoldásai, az EAR (fejlett jövőkutatás) program eredményei
EAR Program Research Results – Exploratory Advanced Research: Next-Generation Transportation Solutions
Federal Highway Administration USA
Terjedelem: 44 oldal
The Exploratory Advanced Research (EAR) Program addresses the need for longer term, higher risk research with the potential for long-term improvements to transportation systems—improvements in planning, building, renewing, and operating safe, congestion-free, and environmentally sound transportation facilities. The EAR Program focuses investments in areas where changes in science and engineering can dramatically lead towards making the highway system safer, more durable, and more efficient: Connected Highway and Vehicle System Concepts, Breakthrough Concepts in Materials Science, Human Behavior and Travel Choices, Technology for Assessing Performance, New Technology and Advanced Policies for Energy and Resource Conservation.
Kutatási témaelemző jelentés: Közlekedési infrastruktúra
Research Theme Analysis Report: Transport Infrastructure
Transport Research & Innovation Portal (TRIP)
European Commission’s Directorate-General for Mobility and Transport (DG-MOVE), EU
Terjedelem: 72 oldal
The purpose of TRIP is to collect, structure, analyse and disseminate the results of European Union (EU) supported transport research, research financed nationally in the European Research Area and selected global research programmes. The TRIP web portal can be found at http://www.transport-research.info The purpose of this Research Theme Analysis Report is to provide an overview of research performed (mostly) in the EU collated by TRIP, providing a view across many projects that fall under the theme. It reports a robust and thorough assessment of the reported results from the research projects, giving scientific and policy perspectives. For the purpose of this review, the theme of Transport Infrastructure has been divided into six sub-themes (identified by considering the life-cycle of infrastructure) and the assessments performed within each sub-theme as well as across the complete theme. The sub-themes considered are: planning; assessment; pricing, funding and financing; construction; management and governance; monitoring and maintenance.
Aszfalt fáradási károsodás javulása és a tartóssági határok: Útmutató alkalmazási lehetőségek
Asphalt Fatigue Damage Healing and Endurance Limits: Guide Implementation Options
Terjedelem: 117 oldal
Overseas research has suggested that asphalt fatigue endurance limit may exist, where applied strain is sufficiently low no fatigue damage accumulates in the asphalt as the rate of asphalt healing exceeds the rate of damage accumulation. The existence of such limits has implications for design of thick asphalt pavements including potential reductions in pavement thickness under certain conditions. This report summarises laboratory, computer modelling and field studies conducted to identify and validate the asphalt endurance limit concept; summarises asphalt design procedures used overseas which incorporate an asphalt fatigue endurance limit; discusses options for revision of the Austroads pavement design procedures.
Az ejtősúlyos teherbírásmérés behajlási adatainak felhasználása a mechanikai-tapasztalati tervezésben és elemzésben. I. kötet zárójelentés
Using Falling Weight Deflectometer Data with Mechanistic-Empirical Design and Analysis, Volume I: Final Report
K.D. Smith, J.E. Bruinsma, M.J. Wade, K. Chatti, J.M. Vandenbossche, H.T. Yu
Applied Pavement Technology Inc. USA
Terjedelem: 186 oldal
The need to accurately characterize the structural condition of existing pavements has increased with the recent development, release, and ongoing implementation of the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG). A number of different material inputs are required in the procedure, and it is important to adequately characterize and define them. The analysis of deflection data collected by the falling weight deflectometer (FWD) provides a quick and reliable way to characterize the properties of the paving layers as well as to assess the loadcarrying capacity of existing pavement structures. With the release of the new MEPDG, there is a pressing need to identify and evaluate the way that FWD testing is integrated into the new design procedure. Moreover, as highway agencies continue to implement the MEPDG, best practices guidance is needed on how to effectively test existing pavement structures and interpret the results as part of a mechanistic-empirical pavement evaluation and rehabilitation process. This document is part of a three-volume report investigating the use of the FWD as part of mechanistic-empirical pavement design and rehabilitation procedures. In this volume, general pavement deflection-testing procedures and commonly used deflection analysis approaches and backcalculation programs are reviewed for flexible, rigid, and composite pavement structures. The relevance of the different procedures and approaches to the current MEPDG are explored through examination of six case studies evaluated using FWD testing results in the MEPDG. These six case studies used pavement sections from the Long-Term Pavement Performance database containing adequate design, construction, and testing data results as a means of assessing the way that FWD deflection data are used in the rehabilitation portion of the MEPDG. Based on the case study findings, and on information from the literature, recommendations for continued improvements and developments in the analysis and interpretation of pavement deflection data were developed.
Magas bevágási rézsűk szeizmikus tervezése és teljesítménye
Seismic design and performance of high cut slopes
P. Brabhaharan, D. Mason E. Gkeli
Opus International Consultants Ltd., Új-Zéland
Terjedelem: 149 oldal
A review of the performance of slopes in historical earthquakes, a review of relevant literature describing recent research, consideration of New Zealand’s distinctive topography and seismicity, and limited numerical analyses have been carried out. Steep slopes have failed in past earthquakes, with the initiation of failures in the upper part of slopes indicating the contribution of topographical amplification of earthquake motions. Landslides have been concentrated in hanging wall areas relative to fault rupture, particularly in thrust fault rupture earthquakes. Past research and numerical analyses show that topographical amplification at the crest of a ridge and terrace slopes is likely, with the magnitude of the amplification being dependent on the frequency of the earthquake motions relative to the shape of the topography. The presence of weathered rock (or soil) overlying unweathered rock was shown to rise to larger amplifications of ground shaking. Amplification was also found to be likely at the top of cut slopes, even when the cut slopes do not extend to the ridge/terrace crest. Guidelines have been developed for the seismic design of high cut slopes along transportation routes. A resilience-based design approach is proposed, to achieve an economical design, consistent with the resilience expectations for the transportation route.