Nemzetközi szemle: Március
Az intelligens közlekedési rendszerek kiemelt teljesítmény mutatói
Key Performance Indicators for Intelligent Transport Systems
Szerző(k): AECOM Ltd. UK
Terjedelem: 185 oldal
This study was commissioned by DG MOVE to establish a set of common Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) for road transport Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS), with supporting guidance on their application, presentation and reporting. Interim objectives of the study included undertaking a state of the art review of KPIs relating to ITS, with a particular focus on the type, method of calculation, terminology used and approaches and how these vary between Member States. The identified KPI shortlist of 15 KPIs achieves a relatively even balance between benefit (7 KPIs: Change in journey time, Change in flow, Change in road traffic journey time variability, Change in mode share, Change in accident numbers and severity, Change in CO2 emissions, Public eCall timeliness) and deployment (8 KPIs: Incident detection and incident management, Automated speed detection, Traffic and Travel Information, Dynamic public transport traveller information, Coverage of Traffic Information Management and Cooperative-ITS, Adaptive Traffic Control or prioritisation, Intelligent vehicles, Intelligent Services in accordance to Delegated Regulations under the ITS Directive). The recommended list also seeks to achieve an appropriate balance between the different ITS priority areas of the ITS Action Plan1 and ITS Directive and wider EU policy goals.
Elérhetőség alapú hálózat üzemeltetés tervezési keretrendszer fejlesztése
Development of the Accessibility-Based Network Operations Planning Framework
Szerző(k): Espada, I., Bennett, P., Green D., Hatch, D.,
a letöltéshez ingyenes regisztráció szükséges
Terjedelem: 90 oldal
This project extended the Austroads network operation planning framework to address accessibility issues and to outline accessibility metrics for accessibility to employment, primary and secondary school, tertiary institution, and retail and recreation based on previous Austroads research. The project also outlined metrics for health and community services, and freight, based on stakeholder interviews and a literature review. A case study was conducted on Burwood Heights to demonstrate the application and benefits of the framework.
A biztonságos infrastruktúra rendszer teljesítményének javítása: záró jelentés
Improving the Performance of Safe System Infrastructure: Final Report
Szerző(k): Jurewicz, C., Tofler, S., Makwasha, T.,
a letöltéshez ingyenes regisztráció szükséges
Terjedelem: 128 oldal
This report summarises the findings of a three-year study which reviewed the safety performance of selected road infrastructure elements and provided solutions that were more closely aligned with the Safe System ideal. The review examined the performance of signalised intersections, roundabouts and wire rope barriers. The solutions were developed following a literature review, statistical analysis of site data, in-depth crash data analysis, and expert guidance. The review found that the safety performance of signalised intersections can be improved by managing high entry speeds and unfavourable impact angles using signalised roundabouts, and horizontal and vertical deflections on entry. Roundabouts showing poor safety outcomes for cyclists and motorcyclists can be made safer by reducing approach and entry speeds. In these cases, tighter geometric design or additional supporting infrastructure can help reduced speeds. Wire rope barriers were seen to deliver positive safety improvements relative to other roadside design options. Guidance refinement could further optimise safety outcomes.
Reflexiós repedés kezelési útmutató hajlékony burkolatokhoz
Reflective Crack Mitigation Guide for Flexible Pavements
Szerző(k): Williams, R.C., Chen, C., Buss, A. ,
Iowa State University, USA
Terjedelem: 142 oldal
Reflective cracks form in pavements when hot-mix asphalt (HMA) overlays are placed over jointed and/or severely cracked rigid and flexible pavements. In the first part of the research, survival analysis was conducted to identify the most appropriate rehabilitation method for composite pavements and to evaluate the influence of different factors on reflective crack development. Four rehabilitation methods, including mill and fill, overlay, heater scarification (SCR), and rubblization, were analyzed using three performance indicators: reflective cracking, international roughness index (IRI), and pavement condition index (PCI). It was found that rubblization can significantly retard reflective cracking development compared to the other three methods. No significant difference for PCI was seen among the four rehabilitation methods. Heater scarification showed the lowest survival probability for both reflective cracking and IRI, while an overlay resulted in the poorest overall pavement condition based on PCI. In addition, traffic level was found not to be a significant factor for reflective cracking development. An increase in overlay thickness can significantly delay the propagation of reflective cracking for all four treatments. Soil types in rubblization pavement sites were assessed, and no close relationship was found between rubblized pavement performance and subgrade soil condition. In the second part of the research, the study objective was to evaluate the modulus and performance of four reflective cracking treatments: full rubblization, modified rubblization, crack and seat, and rock interlayer. A total of 16 pavement sites were tested by the surface wave method (SWM), and in the first four sites both falling weight deflectometer (FWD) and SWM were conducted for a preliminary analysis. The SWM gave close concrete layer moduli compared to the FWD moduli on a conventional composite pavement. However, the SWM provided higher moduli for the rubblized concrete layer. After the preliminary analysis, another 12 pavement sites were tested by the SWM. The results showed that the crack and seat method provided the highest moduli, followed by the modified rubblization method. The full rubblization and the rock interlayer methods gave similar, but lower, moduli. Pavement performance surveys were also conducted during the field study. In general, none of the pavement sites had rutting problems. The conventional composite pavement site had the largest amount of reflective cracking. A moderate amount of reflective cracking was observed for the two pavement sites with full rubblization. Pavements with the rock interlayer and modified rubblization treatments had much less reflective cracking. It is recommended that use of the modified rubblization and rock interlayer treatments for reflective cracking mitigation are best.
Burkolat- és vagyongazdálkodási döntést segítő keretrendszer Iowa államban
Iowa Pavement Asset Management Decision-Making Framework
Szerző(k): Abdelaty, A., Jeong, D., Smadi, O., Gransberg, D.D.,
Iowa State University, USA
Terjedelem: 116 oldal
Most local agencies in Iowa currently make their pavement treatment decisions based on their limited experience due primarily to lack of a systematic decision-making framework and a decision-aid tool. The lack of objective condition assessment data of agency pavements also contributes to this problem. This study developed a systematic pavement treatment selection framework for local agencies to assist them in selecting the most appropriate treatment and to help justify their maintenance and rehabilitation decisions. The framework is based on an extensive literature review of the various pavement treatment techniques in terms of their technical applicability and limitations, meaningful practices of neighboring states, and the results of a survey of local agencies. The treatment selection framework involves three different steps: pavement condition assessment, selection of technically feasible treatments using decision trees, and selection of the most appropriate treatment considering the return-on-investment (ROI) and other non-economic factors. An Excel-based spreadsheet tool that automates the treatment selection framework was also developed, along with a standalone user guide for the tool. The Pavement Treatment Selection Tool (PTST) for Local Agencies allows users to enter the severity and extent levels of existing distresses and then, recommends a set of technically feasible treatments. The tool also evaluates the ROI of each feasible treatment and, if necessary, it can also evaluate the non-economic value of each treatment option to help determine the most appropriate treatment for the pavement. It is expected that the framework and tool will help local agencies improve their pavement asset management practices significantly and make better economic and defensible decisions on pavement treatment selection.
Lézerszkennerrel és fotogrammetriával mért útfelület egyenetlenségek összehasonlítása
Comparison of Roadway Roughness Derived from LIDAR and SFM 3D Point Clouds
Szerző(k): Alhasan, A., Younkin, K., White, D.J.,
Iowa State University, USA
Terjedelem: 62 oldal
This report describes a short-term study undertaken to investigate the potential for using dense three-dimensional (3D) point clouds generated from light detection and ranging (LIDAR) and photogrammetry to assess roadway roughness. Spatially continuous roughness maps have potential for the identification of localized roughness features, which would be a significant improvement over traditional profiling methods. This report specifically illustrates the use of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and photogrammetry using a process known as structure from motion (SFM) to acquire point clouds and illustrates the use of these point clouds in evaluating road roughness. Five roadway sections were chosen for scanning and testing: three gravel road sections, one Portland cement concrete (PCC) section, and one asphalt concrete (AC) section. To compare clouds obtained from terrestrial laser scanning and photogrammetry, the coordinates of the clouds for the same section on the same date were matched using open source computer code. The research indicates that the technologies described are very promising for evaluating road roughness. The major advantage of both technologies is the large amount of data collected, which allows the evaluation of the full surface. Additional research is needed to further develop the use of dense 3D point clouds for roadway assessment.
A vezető nélküli járművek jogi környezetének áttekintése
A Look at the Legal Environment for Driverless Vehicles
Szerző(k): Glancy, D. J., Peterson, R. W. Graham, K. F.,
Transportation Research Board, USA
Terjedelem: 106 oldal
Driverless vehicles have been predicted, promised, and desired for decades. Finally, technologies necessary to realize these devices have become available. The question is no longer if, but when, driverless vehicles will become available to the public. When they do, driverless vehicles will transform ground transportation in the United States and around the world. Capable of operating without human control over their operation, driverless vehicles are anticipated to have numerous advantages in terms of safety, convenience, mobility, and environmental protection, relative to their conventional counterparts. By freeing up what would otherwise be a driver for other tasks, driverless vehicles may increase the productivity of their users. The enhanced awareness and reaction capabilities of these vehicles eventually should result in thousands of saved lives and avoided vehicle crashes. Intelligently coordinating the movements of driverless vehicles should eliminate or at least mitigate traffic congestion, air pollution, and human frustrations incident to everyday driving. Full realization of these benefits, however, will require modifications to some prevailing legal principles that expect motor vehicles to have drivers in control. Conventional motor vehicles operated by human drivers are subject to an elaborate architecture of legal rules. These rules cover such topics as how these vehicles are to be designed, manufactured, sold, repaired, and used; how liability should be assigned for injuries caused by these devices; the sorts of misconduct that will be regarded as criminal; automobile insurance; and the appropriate uses of land for roads, highways, and other transportation infrastructure. Driverless vehicles will lead to changes in some of these rules, particularly those that at present may not fully account for how these devices operate. This report discusses the legal environment that will apply to driverless vehicles, considering how driverless vehicles may fit within or challenge existing rules, and, as relevant and appropriate, suggests how these rules could be modified to better serve the public interest. Following the introduction, Section II examines how policymakers of the past addressed some of the challenges associated with once-novel technologies such as railroads, steamboats, airplanes, and conventional automobiles. Section III will provide an overview of the characteristics of driverless automobiles. Section IV then considers how prevailing civil-liability rules may apply to driverless vehicles, while Section V estimates how criminal liability may adhere to their use and misuse. Section VI addresses how these vehicles will be insured, and the changes they may produce in the insurance market. Section VII turns to the privacy and security implications of driverless vehicles and the imperative of building both security and privacy into driverless vehicles. Section VIII discusses federal, state, and local legislation and administrative regulation of driverless vehicles. Section IX then considers sustainability in terms of land, environment, and infrastructure resources. Finally, Section X offers some brief concluding thoughts.
Fenntartható felszíni közlekedési kutatás a 7. EU Keretprogramban 2007-2013. Projekt ismertetők 2. kötet, pályázati felhívások 2010-2013.
Sustainable Surface Transport Research 7th Framework Programme 2007-2013 Project Synopses – Volume 2 Calls 2010 to 2013
Szerző(k): European Commission, Directorate-General for Research and Innovation, EU
Terjedelem: 606 oldal
The Sustainable Surface Transport Unit of the Directorate-General for Research and Innovation is pleased to provide you in this publication with a comprehensive description of more than 150 projects funded in the 2010-2013 Calls for Proposals of the Seventh Framework Programme in the field of Sustainable Surface Transport. This Project Synopsis book is a follow on to the Volume 1 Synopsis which covered the earlier calls of FP7 and which was published in 2011. The book starts with an introduction which gives an overview of the Sustainable Surface Transport sector, the FP7 instruments and information on the European Technology Platforms (ETPs), the Joint Technology Initiatives (JTIs), the European Green Cars Initiative and “The Ocean of Tomorrow” cross-thematic calls. Some statistics on the totality of this research in FP7 are also provided. For each project you will find a short description of the state of the art, the objectives, the work planned during the project and the expected results. The contact details of the project coordinator and members of the partnership are also provided. We hope that this information will be helpful for research policymakers, project proposers who are seeking information on the current state of the art, and stakeholders in the research community who wish to identify ongoing European research projects of interest to them or to identify potential partners for future collaborations. The research projects are grouped by the activities of the Work Programme: The Greening of Surface Transport, The European Green Cars Initiative, Encouraging Modal Shift and Decongesting, Transport Corridors, Ensuring Sustainable Urban Mobility, Improving Safety and Security, Strengthening Competitiveness, Cross-cutting Activities for Implementation of the Sub-theme Programme, Ocean of tomorrow. At the end of the book, indexes grouped by acronym, partners and instruments are also provided. Contact details of the National Contact Points, whose role is to relay the information on the Seventh Framework Programme in the European Union Member States and wider, are also given. Finally, contact details of the staff in DG Research and Innovation of the European Commission-who monitor these projects are also provided.
Az úthasználók véleménye a használatarányos útdíjról
Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees
Szerző(k): Agrawal, A.W., Nixon, H., Hooper, A.M.,
San Jose State University, California, USA
Terjedelem: 203 oldal
Highway administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which information already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and practice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviating the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to highway administrators and engineers. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-today work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful information and to make it available to the entire highway community, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials—through the mechanism of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program—authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing study. This study, NCHRP Project 20-5, “Synthesis of Information Related to Highway Problems,” searches out and synthesizes useful knowledge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute an NCHRP report series, Synthesis of Highway Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems.
Harc a figyelemért. A gépkocsivezetők figyelemelvonása – aktuális kutatási áttekintés
The battle for attention. Driver distraction – a review of recent research and knowledge
Szerző(k): Kinnear, N., Stevens,, A.,
Institute of Advanced Motorists, UK
Terjedelem: 24 oldal
In 2015 the topic of driver distraction has been in the media as never before. As the ‘connected car’ becomes a reality it is vital to ensure that the plethora of new features on our cars make a positive contribution to the reduction in death and injury. Human error remains the biggest cause of crashes and technology has to work with the grain of people’s lives and abilities if it is to truly enhance our safety performance. The completely driverless car is still some way off and in the meantime new technology continues to run well ahead of any attempts by regulators to catch up. This report from the experts at TRL summarises what we know about distraction and concludes by posing some key questions for safety experts. This report for the Institute of Advanced Motorists (IAM) summarises recent research and knowledge from scientific studies about distracted driving. The report defines what it means to be ‘distracted’ when driving, discusses the impact of distraction on driver behaviour and safety, and what can be done to reduce distracted driving. The focus of distraction discussed here relates to how drivers engage with technology when driving. The report begins with a background to driver distraction, followed by discussion about what is actually meant by driver distraction. It is then considered why humans cannot successfully do two things at the same time, particularly within the context of driving. The subsequent section summarises the scientific research findings to date with regard to driver distraction and technology, and how this affects different types of road user. Recommendations for how driver distraction can be mitigated in the real world and a summary conclude the report. Responses to common questions raised by drivers are presented in Appendix A.